Building blocks of EE Program – The Purpose

In this series of posts (Building blocks of Entrepreneurship Program), the posts are going to dive to the 5 fundamental dimensions of entrepreneurial education programs and discover the research views on the subject

Building blocks of entrepreneurship education program

Fayolle and Gailly (2008) introduce a framework for assessing and designing entrepreneurship education programs. In their view, entrepreneurship education should address five different questions in their architecture:

  1. Why (objectives)
  2. For whom (audiences)
  3. For which results (evaluations)
  4. What (contents, theories)
  5. How (methods, pedagogies)

In this article, we are focusing on the why aspect.

Objectives of entrepreneurship education program

The objectives of entrepreneurship education can be defined in micro-level (individual) and in the macro-level (organisation, society). At the individual level, the educational program should consider different learning objectives for different individual roles. Aims and objectives even if not clearly defined, will eventually affect other aspects of program design, such as who will be selected to the entrepreneurship program, what contents and courses will the program consist of, the evaluation of the program and how entrepreneurship will be taught (Fayolle and Gailly, 2008). Hytti and Gorman (2002), define three different aims for participants in entrepreneurship programs including learning about entrepreneurship, learning to become entrepreneurial and learning to become an entrepreneur. Jatka lukemista ”Building blocks of EE Program – The Purpose”

Making sense about Entrepreneurship – Education: a venture creator or ’mindset’ amplifier?

Policy makers worldwide have emphasised entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education (EE) for its economic benefits (Kuratko, 2005; Neck and Greene, 2011). Entrepreneurs are widely associated with job creation and catalysts for economic growth regionally and nationally and are seen as the major force in global competition. As a result of early positive indications of entrepreneurship education and as a response to global competitive pressure, many governments are pushing policies that are increasing the capabilities and amount of entrepreneurs nationally (Gibb, 1999, 2002; Acs et al., 2016). There are positive signs of entrepreneurial education and its relation to increasing entrepreneurial activity. It is now commonly accepted that indeed entrepreneurial competencies can be developed by education, at least to a certain degree and that entrepreneurs are not only born, but they can be made (Kuratko 2003). Jatka lukemista ”Making sense about Entrepreneurship – Education: a venture creator or ’mindset’ amplifier?”

Making sense about Entrepreneurship – Be good at everything and excellent at nothing

Photo by Garrhet Sampson on Unsplash

Emphasis on skill-based training for entrepreneurs have been made due to existing evidence that owners in new businesses need to focus on financial and budgeting skills, marketing, recruiting and human resource management rather than innovativeness and confidence (Hambrick and D’Aveni, 1988; Davies et al., 2002; Keogh and Galloway, 2004). Reason being, that most entrepreneurs and owners do not tend to lack personal attributes such as innovativeness and confidence. Naturally, there are various skills and competencies that can lead to functioning enterprise and depends on the business industry. The most commonly accepted skills, regardless of the industry, include creativity, flexibility, market orientation, project management, leadership, communication and teamwork skills (Westhead and Matlay, 2006; Oosterbeek, Van Praag and Ijsselstein, 2010; European Commission, 2012). In addition, it is acknowledged that businesses in different growing phases are subject to different areas of challenges. Chen Greene and Crick (1998) described different entrepreneurial roles such as innovator, risk-taker, executive manager, relation builder, risk reducer and goal achiever. The roles that a business needs were dependent on the maturity level of the company and the problems they were facing. Therefore, it can be assumed that entrepreneurs need different skills according to the company stage and the role that the entrepreneur is focusing on.

Jatka lukemista ”Making sense about Entrepreneurship – Be good at everything and excellent at nothing”

Making sense about Entrepreneurship – What do I need to know as an entrepreneur?

Photo by Ben White on Unsplash

There are numerous competencies that an entrepreneur needs. The article focuses on the knowledge needed as an entrepreneur. Knowledge refers to what entrepreneurship is and broader understanding of entrepreneurship and the role of an entrepreneur, whereas skills refer to the ability to become an entrepreneur, turn the ideas into action, such as creating a business plan or ability to analyse and assess risks. As previously noted, entrepreneurship can be defined as one’s ability to identify opportunities and exploit them. Can research identify the knowledge needed in regard to this view?

Jatka lukemista ”Making sense about Entrepreneurship – What do I need to know as an entrepreneur?”

Making sense about Entrepreneurship – What does it mean to have a can do attitude (Self-Efficacy)?

Photo by Brooke Cagle on Unsplash

An entrepreneur can be viewed as a task-orientated role, comparable to a managerial and or owner role in a business. However, there are arguments that an entrepreneur is somewhat different from a business manager, having distinct attributes that differentiate an entrepreneur (Gibb, 1987, 2002). There are arguments that entrepreneurs carry distinct traits, values and have different attitudes towards taking an initiative. Entrepreneurs are often associated with attributes such as risk-propensity, need for achievement and self-efficacy (Begley and Boyd, 1987; Chen, Greene and Crick, 1998; Vermeulen and Curseu, 2008).

Self-efficacy is the belief in one’s ability to perform certain tasks successfully (Bandura, 1997). Self-efficacy is crucial in developing a positive attitude toward challenges and taking action. It is discovered to be a dominant influence not only overcoming obstacles but a driving force behind one’s choice to pursue activities and behavioral settings. Bandura and Wood (1989) define that individual with high self-efficacy expectations leads the individual to the approach the setting, whereas an individual with low-self efficacy makes them avoid that setting. Studies have found that high entrepreneurial self-efficacy leads to entrepreneurial intention such as a positive attitude toward founding a company (Chen, Greene and Crick, 1998; Zhao, Hills and Seibert, 2005). However, even if intention there is a link towards entrepreneurial activity and intention and has been widely explored (Ajzen, 1991), it is reasonable to argue that there might be contextual barriers for individuals to act according to the intentions.
Jatka lukemista ”Making sense about Entrepreneurship – What does it mean to have a can do attitude (Self-Efficacy)?”

Making sense about Entrepreneurship – Are entrepreneurs more risk takers than non-entrepreneurs?

Photo by Loic Leray on Unsplash

An entrepreneur can be viewed as a task-orientated role, comparable to a managerial and or owner role in a business. However, there are arguments that an entrepreneur is somewhat different from a business manager, having distinct attributes that differentiate an entrepreneur (Gibb, 1987, 2002). There are arguments that entrepreneurs carry distinct traits, values and have different attitudes towards taking an initiative. Entrepreneurs are often associated with attributes such as risk-propensity, need for achievement and self-efficacy (Begley and Boyd, 1987; Chen, Greene and Crick, 1998; Vermeulen and Curseu, 2008).

Risk propensity refers to individuals tendency to take different decisions based on how much risk is involved in the decision context (Vermeulen and Curseu, 2008). Busenitz and Barney (1997) compared business managers and entrepreneur’s decision-making heuristics to each other and found that entrepreneurs indeed “acted riskier” from an outsider’s perspective than the business managers. However, why the decisions of entrepreneurs differentiated from the control group, were related to one’s bias toward overconfidence and representativeness. Entrepreneurs might think differently about the decisions on opportunities, by being more willing to generalise the opportunity from limited experience (representativeness) and feeling overconfident to overcome certain tasks and obstacles, thus concluding that the opportunity is less risky form their perspective (Busenitz and Barney, 1997).

Jatka lukemista ”Making sense about Entrepreneurship – Are entrepreneurs more risk takers than non-entrepreneurs?”

Application Layer Protocol Support in IoT Cloud Platforms

I recently wrote a seminar paper for Aalto uni’s course and decided to publish it here online, since it might provide some useful insight on application level protocol support on IoT cloud platforms. Please keep in mind that I had limited time and resources while conducting this seminar paper. I think there should be much more elaboration on each section. But anywaays, here it is:

Application Layer Protocol Support in
IoT Cloud Platforms

Abstract
The growth of interconnected devices, known as the Internet of Things, provide new type of opportunities and solutions for different industries and consumer products. However, the number of and heterogeneity of devices, the diversity of communication protocols, and security are some of the major challenges the IoT industry faces. Many cloud-cased platforms provide solutions for IoT and aim to address these challenges through different approaches. This paper provides useful overview of different key elements of the subject of IoT. We survey the different layers of the IoT stack and the discuss the network protocols used in IoT today . We also provide a comparison of popular IoT cloud platforms such as Microsoft Azure, Amazon Web Services and Google Cloud Platform. The comparison shows varying support for the selected application layer messaging protocols. The results conclude that Microsoft Azure provides the most comprehensive support for application layer protocols, supporting natively protocols such as AMQP, MQTT and HTTP. In addition, Azure provides both cloud framework and field gateway SDK for extending the protocol support.

Jatka lukemista ”Application Layer Protocol Support in IoT Cloud Platforms”

Älykkyys ja älypelit (in finnish)

Selailin vanhoja koulutehtäviäni hiljattain ja löysin kurssille tekemäni tutkimussuunnitelman. Vaikka se sisältää hiukan epäakateemista kirjoittamista, päätin sen nyt tänne jakaa, sillä lyösin itse siitä joitain mielenkiintoisia pointtereita. Toivottavasti jollekkin on hyötyä. Liitin osuuteen vain teoriaosan, koska loput tekstistä käsittelivät vain kuvitteelisen tutkimuksen tekemistä (tutkimuksessa oltaisiin tutkittu lumosity älykkyyspelin vaikutuksia älykkyyteen):

1 Johdanto

Olen aina ollut kiinnostunut ihmisistä. Tutkimussuunnitelmaa miettiessäni minulle tuli heti mieleeni, että haluaisin tutkia asiaa, jossa psykologia ja informaatioteknologia yhdistyvät. Päädyin pohtimaan pelien vaikutusta ihmiseen.

Lukion alussa psykologian ensimmäisellä kurssilla tein pienimuotoisen tutkimuksen, jossa pelasin silloisella nokia puhelimellani Brain games nimistä peliä. Tutkimuksen alussa tein internetistä löydetyllä testillä älykkyystestin, jonka toistin tutkimuksen lopussa. Pelasin peliä säännöllisesti ja kuukauden aikana pelikertoja kertyi runsas sata. Lopuksi sain kasaan tutkimustulokset. Älykkyys oli huimasti kasvanut.

Jatka lukemista ”Älykkyys ja älypelit (in finnish)”

RSA encryption, private and public key calculation

RSA is a cryptosystem and used in secure data transmission. It is based on the difficulty of factoring the product of two large prime numbers.

If we already have calculated the private ”d” and the public key ”e” and a public modulus ”n”, we can jump forward to encrypting and decrypting messages (if you haven’t calculated them, please scroll downfurther this blog post).
Encryption
To encrypt a message one needs a public key ”e” and ”n”, which we take a look on how to calculate further, and a message ”m”.

Equation for encrypting the message
m^e mod n = c
”c” is the ciphertext, an result of encryption using cypher algorithm, such as the encryption algorithm demonstrated.

Decryption
To decrypt the message, one needs the ciphertext created ”c”, the public modulus ”n” and the own private key.

Equation to decrypt the message
c^d mod n = m
The equation results in message which was previously encrypted.

Example
Let’s assume that we have successfully generated the numbers e, d and n. If Alice would want to send Jack a message, she would need to know Jacks public key, which can be publicly available.
Alice is sending a message to Jack m = 42
(m is integer representation of the actual message, could be anything like ”hello world”. How the conversion is done, is up to other algorithm)
Jacks public key consist of number e = 17 and n = 3233.
Alice uses the encryption equation to encrypt the message:
m^e mod n = c
42^17 mod 3233 = 2557

Now Alice has the message encrypted with Jacks public key.
Alice send the ”c”, ciphertext to Jack.

Jack receives the message. He has private key ”d” = 2753. He uses it and public key component n to decrypt the message:
c^d mod n = m
2557^2753 mod 3233 = 42

Jack has successfully decrypted the message 42!

How to choose the e, d, n???
Here is the step by step explanation on how to calculate the private and the public key components.

1. Choose two very large prime numbers which are distinct from one another. Calculate the RSA modulus by multiplying them.
– For demonstration purposes I am going to use small numbers. Why to choose large prime numbers is explained pretty well in this stack overflow answer.

Our primes: p = 11, q = 5
RSA Modulus: n = 11*5 = 55

2. Calculate the phi φ (Euler’s totient function)
Euler’s totient function:
φ(n) = (p-1)(q-1)
φ(n) = (11-1) * (5-1) = 10*4 = 40

3. Select, e, that is relatively prime to the φ and is 1 < e < φ
A prime is relatively prime to some number, if they do not have any common divisor expect for 1. For checking that a number is relative to your φ, you can use Euclidean algorithm or just use your brains (:D I know. check this out http://easymathsteps.jimdo.com/number-system/relatively-prime-number/).
For number 40, our phi φ, relative primes can be 3, 5, 7, 9…
Select one of the relative primes, e. I am going to pick e = 7.

4. Find the inverse of e with respect of φ. That way we can find d.
The equation can be put out like this:
e*d mod φ(n) = 1
We need to solve d:
d is going to be solved by using the extended Euclidean algorithm.
For the love of mathematics in WordPress editor and because of the laziness, I am not going to explain the extended Euclidean algorithm here, please refer this video.
By calculating like in the video, we come to conclusion that the magic number d = 23.

5. To find out if our equation works (e*d mod φ(n) = 1)
we can use the calculated numbers to test it out:
e = 7, d = 23, φ(n)=40
7*23 mod 40 = 1 <-- IT WORKS :)

Private and Public key
After calculating e, d and n, we have successfully calculated the public and private key components.
Private key: d = 23 (your private information!), n = 55 (RSA public modulus) .
Public key: e = 7, n = 55

These posts are done in a purpose of being my personal notes for Information Security course exam. Might contain some inaccurate information.

Sources and check these out:
– Aalto materials
Euclidean Algorithm
The extended Euclidean algorithm
How the RSA algorithm works, including how to select d, e, n, p, q, and φ (phi)
Paper and Pencil RSA (starring the extended Euclidean algorithm)
Relatively prime numbers

Access control matrix and list

Simple exam question in information security could be writing a access control matrix.
Access control matrix is the most simplest Access control representation model. It is useful abstraction, but not very useful beyond that.

Very common exam question could be demonstrating file/folder permissions of users and groups in a access control matrix.

Example output of an ls -l command in terminal:

-rw-r----- pekka guard 123123 10 Jan 20:23 inmates.txt
-rw----r-- teppo inmate 1213 11 Dec 20:23 diary.txt
-rw-rw-r-- jukka guard 20328 09 Feb 11:00 announcements.txt

With this kind of a terminal output the Access control matrix would look like:

pekka teppo jukka
inmates.txt read, write read
diary.txt read read, write read
announcements.txt read, write read read, write

Access control list (ACL)

The same matrix representation of permissions could be turned into a access control list. Simply put, access control list contains list of object access rights.

By using the same terminal data as above lets make a access control list. The access control lists can be displayed in various format, as long as it is displayed as a list.

  • inmates.txt:
    • pekka: read, write
    • teppo: –
    • jukka: read
  • diary.txt:
    • pekka: read
    • teppo: read, write
    • jukka: read
  • announcements.txt:
    • pekka: read, write
    • teppo: read
    • jukka: read, write

These posts are done in a purpose of being my personal notes for Information Security course exam. Might contain some inaccurate information.